The Golgi Apparatus: Morphology and Function with Recent Facts
At the center of the secretory pathway, the Golgi complex ensures correct processing and sorting of cargos towards their final destination sites which are the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and endosome-lysosome system. Recent technological developments have discovered new morphological and functional charcteristics of the Golgi apparatus. In this review, I emphasize that the Golgi apparatus is not a stable organelle instead a highly dynamic organelle changing its morphological and functional characteristics in different physiological and pathological conditions. It is not composed of a simple discontinuous parallel stacks but is composed of various domains such as cis-Golgi network, trans-Golgi network, and intercisternal network including various coated vesicles, vacuoles and tubules. Furthermore, the Golgi apparatus is not only involved in the secretory pathway, but also involved in the storage of Ca2+ very likely to smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, the Golgi apparatus might serve as a microtubule organizing center which is especially important to participate in Golgi reassembly after cell division.