Chemical profile and biological activities of Veronica thymoides subsp pseudocinerea
GOREN, AHMET CEYHAN
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Context: In Turkey, Veronica species (Plantaginaceae) have been used as a diuretic and for wound healing in traditional medicine. Objective: To examine the fatty acid and essential oil profiles, the antioxidant, anticholinesterase, antimicrobial, and DNA damage effects of Veronica thymoides P.H. Davis subsp. pseudocinerea M.A. Fischer as a potential source of natural active compounds. Materials and methods: GC/MS was used to analyze essential oil and fatty acid obtained from whole plant. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test system, DPPH-free and ABTS cation radicals scavenging, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays. The anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined by Ellman and broth macrodillution methods, respectively. The effect of the methanol extract on DNA cleavage was investigated. Results: Hexatriacontene (21.0%) was found to be the main constituent in essential oil, and linoleic acid (25.2%) and palmitic acid (20.6%) in fatty acid. Methanol extract demonstrated the best IC50 values in lipid peroxidation (49.81 +/- 0.31 mu g/ml) and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (15.32 +/- 0.17 mu g/ml). Methanol and water extracts possessed strong ABTS cation radical scavenging activity with IC50 values 9.15 +/- 0.28 and 8.90 +/- 0.14 mu g/ml, respectively. The acetone extract exhibited moderate butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The highest antimicrobial activity was determined in methanol extract against Escherichia coli with 31.25 mu g/ml MIC value. Inhibition of methanol extract on plasmid DNA cleavage by OH radicals was found to be 93.32% at 500 mu g/ml. Conclusion: The methanol extract having strong antioxidant and DNA damage effects could be investigated phytochemically to find natural active compounds.