Effect of different dentin adhesives and application modes on sealing ability of amalgam restorations
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Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the sealing ability of bonded amalgam restorations using different adhesive materials with different adhesive application methods including amalgam bonding application. Materials and methods: The prepared Class-V cavities were randomly assigned to four application groups of four tested dual-curing dentin adhesives (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, XP Bond, Xeno IV and Clearfil Liner Bond 2V), dual-curing resin-based cement (Panavia F2.0) and a control group (unlined amalgam). Group 1 adhesives were applied according to the instructions for direct light-curing, Group 2 chemical-curing mode was applied according to the manufacturer-s amalgam bonding instructions. Group 3 adhesives were first applied in light-curing mode, and then amalgam bonding adhesive was applied. Group 4 adhesives were first applied in chemical-curing mode, followed immediately by light-curing mode. After that, amalgam adhesive parts were applied; then, the amalgam was condensed and carved. After storage for 24h in distilled water at 37 degrees C, restorations were finished and polished. The teeth were then thermocycled (500 cycles between 5 and 55 degrees C), and the specimens were examined for microleakage using methylene blue as a marker. Results: Compared to the control group, the adhesive application modes significantly reduced microleakage for both dentin and enamel margins (p<0.05). In dentin margins of the adhesives tested, Group 4 showed the lowest leakage score. On the enamel margins for Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and XP Bond, Group 1 showed the highest microleakage (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to marginal sealing ability and ease of application, Group 2 was recommended for the etch and rinse systems, and Group 4 was also recommended for the self-etch systems under amalgam restorations.