Publication: Investigating differential miRNA expression profiling using serum and urine specimens for detecting potential biomarker for early prostate cancer diagnosis
Background/aim: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known up-to-date candidate biomarkers for several diseases. In addition, obtaining miRNA from different body fluids such as serum, plasma, saliva, and urine is relatively easy to handle. Herein we aimed to detect miRNAs as biomarkers for early stage prostate cancer (PC). For this purpose, we used urine and serum samples to detect any significant differences in miRNA profiles between patients and healthy controls.
Materials and methods: Total ribonucleic acid (RNA) in urine and serum samples were isolated from eight untreated PC patients, thirty healthy individuals were screened for miRNA profile, and candidate miRNAs were validated. Whole urinary and serum miRNA profile was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 4.0 Arrays. Candidate miRNAs were investigated by stem-loop reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction.
Results: When we analyzed the urinary samples of PC patients, 49 miRNAs were detected to be upregulated and 14 miRNAs were found to be downregulated when compared with healthy controls. According to the serum samples, 19 miRNAs were found to be upregulated, and 21 miRNAs were found to be downregulated when compared with healthy individuals as well. Interestingly, we detected only four overlapping miRNAs (MIR320A, MIR4535, MIR4706, MIR6750) that commonly increase or decrease in both serum and urine samples. Among them, MIR320A was found to be downregulated, and MIR4535, MIR4706, and MIR6750 were found to be upregulated for urine samples. However, only MIR6750 was upregulated and the other three miRNAs were downregulated for serum samples.
Conclusion: Notably, the expression profile of MIR320A was significantly altered in urine specimens of prostate cancer patients. We considered that MIR320A has been evaluated as a valuable biomarker that can be used in the early diagnosis of PC.