SARS CoV-2 Pathogenesis and Immune Response
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The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19, an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, an important pathogen for humans. There is an urgent need to better understand this new virus and to develop ways to control its spread. In Iran, the first case of the COVID-19 was reported after spread from China and other countries. Fever, cough, and fatigue were the most common symptoms of this virus. In worldwide, the incubation period of COVID-19 was 3 to 7 days and approximately 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic, 15% are severe, requiring oxygen, and 5% are critical infections, requiring ventilation. To mount an antiviral response, the innate immune system recognizes molecular structures that are produced by the invasion of the virus. COVID-19 infection induces IgG antibodies against N protein that can be detected by serum as early as day 4 after the onset of disease and with most patients seroconverting by day 14. Laboratory evidence of clinical patients showed that a specific T-cell response against SARS-CoV-2 is important for the recognition and killing of infected cells, particularly in the lungs of infected individuals. At present, there is no specific antiviral therapy for COVID-19 and the main treatments are supportive. In this review, we investigated the innate and acquired immune responses in patients who recovered from COVID-19, which could inform the design of prophylactic vaccines and immunotherapy for the future.