Pituitary carcinomas: Rare and challenging
HATİBOĞLU, MUSTAFA AZİZ
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Background: Pituitary carcinomas (PCs) are defined as adenohypophyseal tumors with metastatic activity within and outside the boundaries of the central nervous system (CNS). The condition is rare and therefore seldom reported; most lesions are hormone producing and have a tendency for complex evolution. As such, the management of PCs remains difficult. We present an illustrative case of PC with a brief review of the recent medical literature. Case Description: A 58-year-old patient was diagnosed with prolactinoma in 2005. The ensuing biochemical and radiological evolution proved contentious; local tumor control was never fully achieved despite multimodal management including pharmacological treatment, repeated resections, and radiotherapy. In late 2017, the patient developed metastatic lesions within the confinements of the CNS requiring further surgical interventions, high-dose radiation, and systemic treatment. Conclusion: As it was the case in our patient, PCs require tailored, multimodal treatments according to the degree of infiltration, site of invasion, and hormone status. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms promoting “extra-sellar” activity, particularly at distant sites; the identification of biomarkers exposing the risk of PC remains a crucial aspect of diagnostics, prevention and future customized therapies.