Reduced Radiation Fluoroscopy Protocol during Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for the Treatment of Kidney Stones
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Purpose: To discuss whether fluoroscopic imaging is essential during the ureteroscopic treatment of kidney stones in an effort to diminish radiation exposure. Materials and methods: Seventy-six patients with kidney stones were treated with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). In the operation room, a mobile C-arm fluoroscopy system was ready to use in case fluoroscopic imaging was needed. The manipulations were performed with tactile and visual cues. The perioperative and postoperative parameters were retrospectively evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.9 ± 13.8 years. The mean stone size was 14.1 ± 4.1 mm. The insertion of the access sheath was performed over the guidewire under single shoot fluoroscopic imaging in all patients. Additional fluoroscopic imaging was required to localize the stone (n = 2) and to determine the collecting system anatomy (n = 2) for 4 (5.2%) patients with previous renal surgery and severe hydronephrosis. Stone-free status was accomplished in 63 (82.9%) patients. Conclusion: The RIRS with low-dose fluoroscopy protocol for kidney stones can be safely and effectively performed in patients with no special circumstances such as anatomical abnormalities or calyceal diverticular stones.