Publication: Association of calcium channel blocker use with lower hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease
Aim: To search whether calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are associated with lower hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who are not on renal replacement therapy (RRT), vitamin D and anti-anemic treatment.
Patients and methods: CKD patients were classified into two groups. Patients on CCBs treatment (103 patients) and patients not using CCBs (104 patients) were compared cross-sectionally regarding clinical findings, complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry and regular medication use. Patients with polycystic kidney disease, comorbidities that could influence CBC other than iron deficiency of obscure origin, patients receiving RRT, erythropoietin (EPO), vitamin D, phosphate binders and drugs that could influence CBC were excluded. Under dependent variable of CCB use, all significantly different independent variables were subjected to multivariate binary logistic regression analysis (MBLRA).
Results: Lower hemoglobin, lower bilirubinemia, higher serum EPO, higher systolic blood pressure were observed in CCB users. Two groups were similar concerning age, gender, BMI, CKD etiology, CKD stage, pretibial edema prevalence, cardiothoracic index, diastolic blood pressure, corrected reticulocyte count, BUN, creatinine, eGFR, proBNP, parathormone, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorous, corrected calcemia, sCRP, relative EPO deficiency and prevalence of relative EPO deficient patients. Groups were comparable regarding comorbidities, types and usage frequencies of all antihypertensive medications other than CCBs. Higher systolic blood pressure and lower hemoglobin were significantly associated with CCB use after MBLRA.
Conclusions: Hemoglobin was significantly lower in CCB users compared to non-users, among CKD patients who did not receive RRT, EPO, phosphate binders, vitamin D, iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid.