High D-dimer levels are associated with prostate cancer

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Caliskan, Selahattin
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Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among men in the world1 and a significant health problem in developed and developing countries2 . The association between cancer and hemostasis has been shown in several studies3 . The main risk factors for coagulation activation and thrombosis are aging and malignancy4 . The increased risk of thrombosis in cancer patients may be associated with high levels of coagulation markers (fibrinogen), and thrombogenesis markers (D-dimer) are likely evidence of this process5 . Fibrinogen is an acute-phase protein that is mainly synthesized by hepatocytes and converted into insoluble fibrin by activated thrombin. It is also an important indicator of the coagulation system6 . The plasma fibrinogen level increases in some circumstances, such as malignancy and systemic inflammation. D-dimer is a degradation product of fibrin which is produced by plasmin-induced fibrinolytic activity7 . It is a biomarker that indicates the activation of hemostasis and fibrinolysis. Elevated plasma levels may be associated with some scenarios such as cancer, pregnancy, infectious diseases, trauma, surgery, and venous thromboembolism. When fibrinogen levels are increased, they are deemed to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in some malignancies, such as those of the digestive system, gynecologic malignancies, urologic neoplasms, and soft tissue sarcomas6 . A high level of D-dimer is a prognostic factor associated with increased mortality risk in patients with brain tumors, lymphomas, breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancers7 . We investigated the levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia.
Prostate cancer, Cancer
KALKAN S., Caliskan S., -High D-dimer levels are associated with prostate cancer-, REVISTA DA ASSOCIACAO MEDICA BRASILEIRA, cilt.66, ss.649-653, 2020
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