Chemical Characterization of 64 Propolis Samples from Hakkari, Turkey
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Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honey bees from various plants they visit. Sixty-four propolis samples were collected from different localities of four districts (Merkez, Yiiksekova, Semdinli, and Qukurca) in Hakkari territory. Ethanol extracts of the propolis samples were prepared, and their chemical contents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Flavonoids were generally found in a high concentration in Semdinli samples of Turkey. Twenty-seven coumarins were identified in the 28 propolis samples among studied 64 ones. Except suberosin, the coumarins were never reported before in any propolis sample with Turkish origin. The propolis samples belonging to Yuksekova were found to be richer in coumarins than the others, and the most richest one among the Yfiksekova apiaries, was found to be Akocak sample (Y2) with 41.99% total yield, followed by Akcall sample (Y5) (30.86%). This is a first comprehensive and original report about the chemical profile of propolis samples from Hakkari. The propolis samples from Hakkari exhibited a chemical content rich in flavonoids including coumarins and furocoumarins.