Different haemodynamic patterns in head-up tilt test on 400 paediatric cases with unexplained syncope
MetadataShow full item record
Objective: To assess haemodynamic patterns in head-up tilt testing on 400 paediatric cases with unexplained syncope. Methods: Medical records of 520 children who underwent head-up tilt testing in the preceding year were retrospectively evaluated, and 400 children, 264 (66%) girls and 136 (34%) boys, aged 12.6 +/- 2.6 years (median 13; range 5-18), with unexplained syncope were enrolled in the study. Age, sex, baseline heart rate, baseline blood pressure, frequency of symptoms, and/or fainting attacks were recorded. The test protocol consisted of 25 minutes of supine resting followed by 20 minutes of 70 degrees upright positioning. Subjects were divided into nine groups according to their differing haemodynamic patterns. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to age, gender, baseline blood pressure, and frequency of syncope (p > 0.05). The response was compatible with orthostatic intolerance in 28 cases (7.0%), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in 24 cases (6.0%), asymptomatic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in 26 cases (6.5%), orthostatic hypotension in seven cases (1.7%), vasovagal syncope in 38 cases (9.5%), and negative in 274 cases (69.2%). Vasovagal syncope response patterns were of type 3 in nine cases (2.2%), type 2A in 10 cases (2.5%), type 2B in two cases (0.5%), and type 1 (mixed) in 17 cases (4.25%). Conclusions: In the 400 paediatric cases with unexplained syncope, nine different haemodynamic response patterns to head-up tilt testing were discerned. Children with orthostatic intolerance syndromes are increasingly referred to hospitals because of difficulty in daily activities. Therefore, there is need for further clinical trials in these patient groups.