Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain (BAT-Back) to the Turkish language
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Objective: Pain-avoidance is considered to be one of the major leading factors to develop a chronic low back pain (CLBP). In this study, we aimed to translate the Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain (BAT-Back) into Turkish and evaluate its psychometric properties in patients with CLBP. Methods: 115 patients with CLBP filled the provided socio-demographic information form, the "Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)", the "Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ)", the "Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)", and the "Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS)". All patients and 40 pain free controls (PFC) were administered the Turkish version (TrBAT-Back) of the "Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain" test. The internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient. The test-retest reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). To evaluate the structural validity of TrBAT-Back, its correlation with FABQ, TSK, ODI, and HADS was examined. Results: The internal consistency of TrBAT-Back was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.97) and its test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.87). Its high correlation with the FABQ-physical activity scores and moderate correlation with the TSK scores supported the structural validity. The TrBAT-Back scores showed a statistically significant moderate correlation with the higher level of pain and disability. Despite the low degree of positive correlation, a high level of anxiety (HADS-anxiety) is potentially associated with avoidance behaviour. CLBP patients and controls differed significantly on TrBAT-Back avoidance scores. Conclusion: We are of the opinion that, compared to the self-report scales, TrBAT-Back will provide more objective data in detecting avoidance behaviour associated with pain in Turkish speaking patients with CLBP.