N-acetylcysteine suppresses colistimethate sodium-induced nephrotoxicity via activation of SOD2, eNOS, and MMP3 protein expressions.
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Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of colistimethate sodium-induced nephrotoxicity and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against nephrotoxicity. Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups comprised of control, colistin, NAC, and colistin–NAC co-treatment, respectively. Serum creatinine and urine N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels were measured at different time intervals. Histological changes, apoptosis, total oxidant and antioxidant status, and the expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) were evaluated in renal tissue. Results: In the colistin group, post-treatment creatinine levels were higher than pretreatment levels (p ¼ .001). There was a significant increase in urine NAG level following colistin treatment on day 10, compared to the baseline value and the first day of treatment (p ¼ .001 and .0001, respectively). Urine NAG levels were higher in the colistin group on the 10th day of treatment than in the other groups (p < .01). Colistin treatment increased the apoptosis index and renal histological damage score (RHDS) significantly and these changes were reversed in NAC co-treatment (RHSD and apoptosis index were 45 and 0 for sterile saline group, 29 and 2 for NAC group, 122 and 7 for colistin group, and 66 and 2 for colistin þ NAC group). We observed no difference between groups regarding total antioxidant and total oxidant status in the kidneys. The expression levels of eNOS, SOD2, and MMP3 decreased significantly in the kidneys of colistin-treated rats; these changes were reversed in the kidneys of NAC co-treated rats. Conclusions: N-acetylcysteine prevented colistin-induced nephrotoxicity through activation of expression levels of SOD2, eNOS, and MMP3.