Publication: Resveratrol reduces light and electron microscopic changes in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: Role of iNOS expression
Introduction: Hepatotoxicity is amajor complication of acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring diphenol and it has anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objectives: In this study, the beneficial effects of RSV on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Materials and methods: Group 1: Ethanol, Group 2: Saline, Group 3: RSV (10 mg/kg/ip), Group 4: APAP (1000 mg/kg/ip/single dose), Group 5: APAP+RSV (20 min after administration of APAP). The rats were sacrificed 24 h after administration of APAP. Light and electron microscopic changes were evaluated. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in liver tissue. Results: Rats of the ethanol, saline, and RSV groups did not present any histopathological alterations. In the APAP group, we observed vascular congestion, necrosis, inflammation, sinusoidal dilatation, and loss of glycogen content. In the APAP+RSV group, these changes were markedly reduced. iNOS immunostaining showed very weak positive stained hepatocytes the sections of control, saline, and RSV groups. However, in the APAP group, iNOS immunostaining was most evident in pericentral hepatocytes. In the same areas in APAP+RSV group, intensity of iNOS immunostaining decreased. A significant increase in MDA and decreases in GSH level, CAT, and SOD activity indicated that APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was mediated through oxidative stress. Significant beneficial changes were noted in tissue oxidative stress indicators in rats treatedwith RSV. Conclusion: These biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings revealed that RSV reduced the severity of APAP-induced alterations in liver.