A Novel Echocardiographic Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence: L-Wave

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Ari, Hasan; Ari, Selma; Akkaya, Mehmet; Sarigul, O. Yasar; Emlek, Nadir; Aydin, Cihan; Cetinkaya, Seckin; Bozat, Tahsin; Melek, Mehmet
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Diastolic dysfunction leads to atrial fibrillation (AF) by increasing left atrial pressure and also increases recurrence rate after cardioversion. So, L-wave, which is associated with severe diastolic dysfunction, could predict recurrent AF after cardioversion. The aim of this study was to investigate predictive value of L-wave for AF recurrence at first month after electrical cardioversion. A total of 127 patients with persistent AF were evaluated for this study and finally 73 patients were included according to the study criteria. Echocardiographic examinations were performed for all patients before and at 24th hour after electrical cardioversion. Heart rates and rhythms were followed with electrocardiography monitor and 12-lead ECG at first week and first month. Seventy patients achieved sinus rhythm (SR) after cardioversion and 3 patients who did not go into SR excluded from the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to having (group 1) or not having (group 2) L-wave on echocardiography. Twenty-two patients (6 men, 16 women) had L-wave and 48 patients (19 men, 29 women) did not have L-wave. Duration of AF was longer in group 1 as compared to group 2 (P=0.03). Mean heart rate was lower in group 1 than in group 2 (P<0.001). Duration of AF and presence of L-wave were significant parameters for AF recurrence in univariate analysis, however, presence of L-wave was the only significant parameter for AF recurrence in multivariate analysis. Ten patients in group 1 (45.5%) and 7 patients (14.6%) in group 2 (P=0.005) had AF recurrence at the end of first month after cardioversion. L-wave did predict AF recurrence with 59% sensitivity, 77% specificity, 45% positive predictive value, and 85% negative predictive value at 1month. Echocardiographic L-wave could predict the AF recurrence.
atrial fibrillation; cardioversion; echocardiography
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