An investigation of the etiology and follow-up findings in 35 children with overgrowth syndromes, including biallelic SUZ12 variant.

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Yüksel Ülker, Aylin
Uludağ Alkaya, Dilek
Çağlayan, Ahmet Okay
Usluer, Esra
Aykut, Ayça
Aslanger, Ayça
Vural, Mehmet
Tüysüz, Beyhan
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Overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes are clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular etiology and long-term follow-up findings of Turkish OGID cohort. Thirty-five children with OGID were included in the study. Single gene sequencing, clinical exome analysis, chromosomal microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing were performed. Five pathogenic copy number variants were detected in the patients; three of them located on chromosome 5q35.2 (encompassing NSD1), others on 9q22.3 and 22q13.31. In 19 of 35 patients; we identified pathogenic variants in OGID genes associated with epigenetic regulation, NSD1 (n = 15), HIST1H1E (n = 1), SETD1B (n = 1), and SUZ12 (n = 2). The pathogenic variants in PIK3CA (n = 2), ABCC9 (n = 1), GPC4 (n = 2), FIBP (n = 1), and TMEM94 (n = 1) which had a role in other growth pathways were detected in seven patients. The diagnostic yield was 31/35(88%). Twelve pathogenic variants were novel. The common facial feature of the patients was prominent forehead. The patients with Sotos syndrome were observed to have milder intellectual disability than patients with other OGID syndromes. In conclusion, this study showed, for the first time, that biallelic variants of SUZ12 caused Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome, monoallelic variants in SETDIB resulted in OGID. Besides expanded the phenotypes of very rare OGID syndromes caused by FIBP and TMEM94.
CMA, OGID, WES, intellectual disability, overgrowth
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