Publication: Sağlıklı beslenmede kullanılan bazı tohumların sabit yağlarının mukayeseli fitokimyasal analizi
Importance of natural food supplements for protecting our health is increased by the scientific evidence of their effectiveness in prevention and treatment of desease through natural ways. This fact increased the demand to natural health products. This study is the investigation of phytohemical analysis for Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus L.) which are very frequently used in recent years because of several reasons like their popularity in media, gluten sensitivity and demand for losing weigth. We aimed to have an important contributution for healthy nutrition by our study, in which we concentrated on effects of oils on general health and especially on heart and brain health. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) which is supported by government as an oil plant in recent years and Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) of which seed breeding studies are carried out by government are added to our study due to their potential to be new alternatives for the currently known oil plants. The results of our study are expected to become encouraging for new studies and also are aimed to be a guide for health professionals for the right way of use by investigated oil contents of the seeds which are popular in recent years. Classification in fatty acid molecules are made with respect to the number of carbons. If number of carbon (C) in fatty acid is less than 6 then it is classified as "short chain", if it is between 6 and 10 then it is classified as "medium chain" and if it is higher than 10 then it is classified as "long chain". Short chain fatty acids stay as liquid in room temperature. Fatty acids containing more than 8 carbons makes the oils solid when they are joined to their structure. Fatty acids are separated into four different groups when classified according to their chain structure: - Substituted fatty acids - Fatty acids with branched chain - Fatty acids with ringed chain - Fatty acids with straight chain o Saturated fatty acids o Unsaturated fatty acids Double bounded fatty acids (alken structure) Triple bounded fatty acids (alkin structure) Fatty acids are separated into two basic groups according to their double-bond content: - Saturated fatty acids - Unsaturated fatty acids Fatty acids are separated into two basic groups according to be able to be synthesized or not by human body: - Essential (basic) fatty acids - Non essential fatty acids 24,4% of plant oils made from fatty seed derivatives in the world is being a part of international business. First row in fatty seed plant oils business is belonging to soy oil and the second is sunflower oil. Between 2010 and 2011, soy oil trade became 44,1% of total business and sunflower oil trade became 19,5% of total business. Sunflower is the fatty seed which the biggest oil production is done in Turkey. Between 2010 and 2011 total fatty seed production is 3 million tones. 45% of this total production is sunflower, 43% is cotton seed, %4 is rape, 3% is soybean, 3% is peanut and 2% is suflower and sesame. Safflower production is 70.000 tones in 2015 and 58.000 tones in 2016. Seeds in this study (buckwheat/Russia), quinoa (Columbia), chia seed (Argentina) and amaranth (India) are being purchased from supermarkets as anybody can reach easily. But although safflower oil is sold in supermarkets, seed of safflower (Alfa Tohum/Remzibey) can not be found in supermarkets. Therefore its seed is being purchased from a well known herbalist shop. Camelina is not sold since it is not suitable to consume due to its high erucic acid. Therefore seeds of which the breeding studies are ongoing by Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock / Field Crops Central Research Institute / Breeding and Genetics Department were preferred. Oil extraction was done by using soxhlet and n-hexane. Also for some seeds cold press oil machine were used. Extracted oils were put in beaker and closed using parafilm and afterwards wrapped with aluminum foil and kept in refrigirator at 4-5 until the analysis is done. Extracted oils were changed to methyl esters and analysed in GS-MS (Gas Chromotography – Mass Spectrometer). Besides this, acidic index and number of peroxides are determined which are accepted as important in the eaten oils. Also for heavy metal investigation quantities of Cd (Cadmium) and Pb (Lead) were determined by using ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy). Same quantity (100g) was used in soxhlet extraction for the studied 6 different seed samples. Difference in the oil content of seeds varied the extracted oil quantity. Extractions obtained were 3.8005g for amaranth, 21.3364g for camelina, 27.7628g for sufflower, 2,9155g for quinoa, 1,9180g for buckwheat and 13.757g for chia. When we compare the obtained fatty acids from amaranth; 37,623% was linoleic acid which is a Poly unsaturated fatty acid, 22,354% was oleic acid which is a saturated single fatty acid, 19,511% was palmitic acid which is a saturated fatty acid and 3,869% was searic acid which is also a saturated acid. And also the biggest percentage 60,723% belonging to squalene which is a triterpen and a precursor of steorids. Other unidentified part was 16,643%. Analysis of camelina oil resulted with the following percentage of fatty acid quantities. The biggest percentage 28,811% belonged to alpha-linoleic acid and the second percentage 16,706% belonged to linoleic acid. Both are poly unsaturated fatty acids. Mono unsaturated fatty acid percentages were; 16,293% for oleic acid, 15,320% for 11-eicosanoic acid, 3,066 for erucic acid, 2,053% for 7,10,13-eicosatrienoic acid, 2,000% for 11-14-eicosadienoic acid and 1,056% for 11-octadecenoic acid. Saturated fatty acid content was 6,992% for palmitic acid, 3,456% for stearic acid and 1,729% for arachidic acid. Unidentified part was 2,518%. Safflower oil included a high percentage of linoleic acid with a percentage of 55,598% can be mentioned as a rich source. Oleic acid which is a mono unsaturated fatty acid was 25,138% and can be mentioned as a rich source too. Saturated fatty acid percentages was 9,692% fo palmitic acid and 3,699% for searic acid. Unidentified part was 5,873%. Linoleic acid percentage is 64,9%. It is a raw fatty acid and it was obtained by cold press technique from safflower. Mono unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid percentage is 19,601% in second row. Saturated fatty acids percentages are 10,084% for palmitic acid and 3,501 for stearic acid. Unidentified part was 1,860%. Fatty acid composition of quinoa is 46,352% for linoleic acid and 4,243% for alpha-linolenic acid. Monounsaturated fatty acids have many varieties but their percentages are low. The biggest percentage 22,205% belongs to oleic acid. Others are 2,723% for 11-octadecenoic acid, 1,683% for erucic acid and 1,681% for 11-eicosanoic acid. Squalene has a meaningful percentage which is 18,463%. Saturated fatty acid percentages are 15,606% for palmitic acid, 0,838% for behenic acid and 0,715% for stearic acid. Unidentified part was 2,913%. When the fatty acid percentages of buckwheat was compared mono and poly saturated fatty acids found to be nearly equal level. Poly saturated fatty acids have the following percentages, 35,598% for linoleic acid which is the biggest, 2,923% for alpha-linolenic acid. Oleic acid which is one of the mono unsaturated fatty acids was in the second row with a percentage of 30,167%. Other fatty acids from the same group have low percentages. 11-eicosanoic acid was found to be 1,940% and 11-octadecenoic acid was found to be 1,363%. Palmitic acid which is a saturated fatty acid is in the third raw with a percentage of 15,872. The other saturated fatty acids have low percentages which are 1,881% for stearic acid and 1,443% for behenic acid. Unidentified part had a percentage of 7,351%. When we look at the fatty acid percentages of chia, it was seen that it is rich from poly saturated fatty acids. Especially contains a high percentage of alpha-linolenic acid which is 48,223%. At second row, linoleic acid stayed as a poly unsaturated fatty acid with a percentage of 18,204%. Saturated acids are coming after unsaturated acids in percentage. Palmitic acid percentage is 9,115% and stearic acid percentage is 3,949%. Monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid had a percentage of 5,696% and 11-octadecenoic acid had a percentage of 1,333%. Unidentified part had a percentage of 13,680%. When raw fatty acid percentages obtained from chia by cold press technique were compared, alpha-linolenic acid had the highest one with a percentage of 56,844%. linoleic acid is the second with a percentage of 20,722%. Third is palmitic acid with 9,518%. Afterwards, oleic acid had 6,771 and stearic acid had 3,713. Unidentified part had a percentage of 1,202%. When we compare all the fatty acids compositions in our study by soxhlet technique, we saw that all of the seeds contain linoleic acid. Safflower contains the biggest percentage of linoleic acid which is 55,598% and amaranth comes after which is 46,352%. Linoleic acid presents in buckwheat and amaranth with a percentage of 37,729% and 37,623%. Percentages are 18,206% in chia and 16,706% in camelina. alpha-linoleic acid can be found in all seeds except amaranth and sufflower. The biggest percentage is in chia which is 48,223% and the secong is camelina which is 28,811%. Comparison of poly unsaturated fatty acids showed that the biggest percentage is in chia which is 66,427% and following ones are safflower with 55,598%, quinoa with 53,329%, camelina with 45,516%, and buckwheat with 38,521%. Squalene was founded only in amaranth and quinoa. Squalene had a percentage of 60% in amaranth and 18% in quinoa. Unidentified part was mostly founded in chia seed oil which was obtained by Soxhlet technique which was 13.680%. The reason for this high unidentified part in linoleic acid was thought to be deformation because of heat, where we saw less in cold press technique. Also linoleic acid quantity was decreased. All the fatty acids analysed contains oleic acid. The biggest content is in buckwheat which is 30,167% and the least content is in chia seed which is 5,696%. Palmitic acid was found in buckwheat with the highest content which is 15,872% and in quinoa which is 15,606%. Erucic acid which is not wanted to be seen in seed oils was present in camelina with 3,066% and in quinoa with 1,681% percentage. Acid and peroxide numbers of the studied seed oils same of them were suitable to reference interval in Turkish Food Codex Notification of Vegetable Oils Observed by Plant Name. Rafination is neded for the oils that has unsuitable acid value. Peroxide numbers were found to be suitable in all seed oils. Since the deformations due to heat in extraction methods were eliminated, reasons like origin of seed, planting and harvesting times, whether it is culturated or not, storage conditions were much important explaining the difference between fatty acid content, acidic and peroxide numbers. Analysis for determining heavy metals by using ICP-OES resulted that all 6 of seeds did not contain Cd. Pb amount was found to be 0,356 mg/kg in quinoa, 0,731 mg/kg in amaranth, 0,410 mg/kg in camelina, 0,284 mg/kg in buckwheat, 0,450 mg/kg in sufflower and 0,361 mg/kg in chia. These contents are less than the level for edible planths which are stated in standards of WHO. Omega-6:omega-3 (-6:-3) percentages in obtained seed oils; chia had 1:4 both for Soxhlet and cold press methods. Camelina had 1:2 and buckwheat had 7:1. Results obtained from our study supports primarily preference of amaranth plant as a source with decreasing effect in LDL cholesterol due to high squalene content in amaranth seed. In Europe, camelina is known with its relatively high decreasing effect in cholesterol and in LDL cholesterol since it has high amount of poly unsaturated fatty acids than the other fatty acids in oils which are used as food. Therefore it was seen that priority should be given to this plant for nutrition. It was thought that camelina will be an important oil plant when a suitable nutritional seed form was obtained after classical breeding methods. Safflower is the richest one in the 6 investigated seeds in terms of poly unsaturayed fatty acids with a 55,598% of linoleic acid. This result makes safflower superior than other seeds for protecting cardiovascular health. Quinoa seeds are preferred in nutrition since they are protein sources. As a result of our study, it has been shown that quinoa will be a supporting source of fatty acids with 46,352% of linoleic acid. These results showed us that quinoa is also important for protecting cardiovascular health as it is with safflower. Buckwheat was thought to be a preferable seed in diet rather than it is preferred as an oil plant with its high fiber content and low energy. Chia was seen to be rich about omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Especially omega-3 fatty acids are coming in front in our ahia study with respect to the other seeds. Chia is attracting interest by its protective effect against hypertension. As a result, all seeds we used in our study have superiorities and weaknesses. When they will be recommended, not only one feature but several aspects of them should be taken into consideration.