Bir senelik retansiyon periyodu sonunda farklı retansiyon protokollerinin oklüzal kontak alanları üzerine etkisi / The effect of different retention protocols on occlusal contact areas in a one-year retention period
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Orthodontic treatment goals can be expressed as achieving ideal tooth alignment, aesthetic, functional occlusion and stability. One of the most important challenges in orthodontics is maintaining the occlusal stability achieved at the end of the active treatment. After orthodontic treatment, the patient is transferred to the retention phase to preserve the new occlusal relationship, and the retention appliances used for this purpose are generally expected to allow settling of the occlusion by the vertically directed movements of posterior teeth, while maintaining the alignment of the teeth and arch dimensions. In our study, the effects of 3 different retention appliances on occlusal contact areas and the changes in OGS scores were investigated at the end of one year retention period. Within the scope of this retrospective study, post-treatment and post-retention records of 90 individuals who received fixed orthodontic treatment in Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics were compared. For the selection criteria, an acceptable final occlusion was sought according to the Objective Grading System (OGS) defined by the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). The individuals were divided into three groups according to the type of retention appliance used. Each group had 30 case: Essix group (1. group), Hawley group (2. group) and fixed retainer group (3. group). All the patients had upper and lower canine-canine bonded lingual retainer, and in addition to this, patients wear Essix for upper arch in group 1, and Hawley plate in group 2, full-time during the first 6 months and half-time (12 hours) during the next 6 months. Dental casts taken after treatment (T1) and at the end of one year retention period (T2) were converted to digital models by scanning with a three-dimensional laser scanner and occlusal contact areas were measured in mm2 using image analysis software (ImageJ). At the end of the retention period, OGS measurements were calculated again on the dental casts and the presence of correlation between OGS scores and contact area change was investigated. As a result of the statistical analysis, it was observed that all the retention types showed significant changes during the retention period. In the Essix group, a statistically significant decrease was found in contact areas for all teeth, except for incisors, and in the Hawley and Fixed retainer groups significant increase was recorded. The increase in the occlusal contact area recorded for the fixed retainer group was found to be higher than that of the Hawley group, but this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, at the end of the retention period, OGS scores improved both in the Hawley and Fixed retainer groups, but only the results of the Hawley group was significant. No correlation was found between the occlusal contact area change and OGS score at the end of one year follow-up. In conclusion, Hawley and fixed retainer appliances allow settling during the retention period compared to Essix appliance, moreover they may be more adequate for stability since they didn't cause an increase in OGS scores.
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