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  • PublicationOpen Access
    Could Vitamin K1 Deficiency be the Problem in Iron Deficiency and/or Anemia in Premenopausal Women?
    (2022-04-01T00:00:00Z) Karatoprak, Cumali; Şekerci, Abdusselam; Karaaslan, Tahsin; Olgaç, Atilla; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Selek, Şahabettin; Köktaşoğlu, Fatmanur; Ekinci, İskender; KARATOPRAK, CUMALİ; ŞEKERCİ, ABDÜSSELAM; ÖZER, ÖMER FARUK; SELEK, ŞAHABETTİN
    Objective: The etiology of iron deficiency anemia, which develops as a result of menstrual bleeding in the premenopausal period, is unknown. Vitamin K1 has an important role in the coagulation cascade and is not a well known vitamin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not Vitamin K1 had a role in anemia developing in the premenopausal period, for which no additional reason could be found. Methods: This study included a patient group of women aged 18-50 years, who had a regular menstrual cycle. Patients who were found to have iron deficiency, who were evaluated hematologically, gastrointestinally and gynecologically, and who did not have a pathology that would lead to iron deficiency were included in the study group.The control group comprised volunteers with regular menstrual cycles who had not been previously determined with iron deficiency. In the study, Vitamin K1, Hemogram, ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity were examined. The Vitamin K1 level was measured by two different methods both using ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. In addition, a record was made for all participants including demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and number of menstruating days. The obtained data were then compared between the groups. Results: A total of 88 voluntary participants were included in the study as 45 patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and a control group of 43 subjects. The age, body mass index, partial thromboplastin, International normalized ratio, active partial thromboplastin time, folic acid, and Vitamin B12 values were similar in both groups. In both methods, no significant difference was determined between the groups in respect of the Vitamin K1 level (p=0.9 in ELISA method and p=0.3 in LC-MS/MS method). The number of menstruation days was determined to be significantly higher in the anemic group than in the control group (p=0.002). Conclusion: From the results of this study, it was considered that IDA developed in premenopausal women with a longer period of menstrual bleeding. However, Vitamin K1 deficiency was not considered to be one of the underlying reasons for longer menstrual bleeding.