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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Inhibitory Effects of Various Essential Oils and Individual Components against Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Their Chemical Compositions
    (2011-10-01T00:00:00Z) Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yuksel; Kartal, MURAT; KARTAL, MURAT
    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 mu g/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 mu g/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Assessment of antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity of the olive oil macerate samples of Hypericum perforatum and their LC-DAD-MS analyses
    (2013-06-01T00:00:00Z) Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Kartal, MURAT; Gulpinar, Ali Rifat; COS, Paul; MATHEEUSSEN, AN; MAES, Louis; TASDEMIR, Deniz; KARTAL, MURAT
    Twenty-one samples of traditionally-prepared (home-made) and ready-made (commercial) St. John-s Wort olive oil macerates were profiled for their in vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity. Their cytotoxic potential was evaluated on MRC-5 fibroblasts. In the antiprotozoal assays, ten of the oils inhibited Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 15.9-64.5 mu g/mL), while only one oil exerted antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus (IC50 = 88.7 mu g/mL). LC-DAD-MS data revealed the presence of pseudohypericin (0.135-3.280 mu g/g) and hypericin (0.277-6.634 mu g/g) in all the oils, whereas chlorogenic acid (1.063 mu g/g) was detected only in one oil sample. Hyperforin was detected in four (0.977-2.399 mu g/g) and adhyperforin in six samples (0.005-3.165 mu g/g). Hypericin and pseudohypericin were common in the active oils, whereas hyperforin, adhyperforin, and chlorogenic acid were absent in these samples. Our results indicated that if the correct plant material is used, the infused oils from Hypericum perforatum may contain active components. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Neuroprotective potential of some terebinth coffee brands and the unprocessed fruits of Pistacia terebinthus L. and their fatty and essential oil analyses
    (2012-02-15T00:00:00Z) Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, F. Sezer; Gulpinar, A. Rifat; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Kartal, MURAT; Sener, Bilge; KARTAL, MURAT
    In the current study, neuroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of four terebinth coffee brands and the fruits of Pistacia terebinthus L were investigated through enzyme inhibition tests against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase as well as antioxidant test systems. Antioxidant activity was measured using radical scavenging activity tests and metal-related tests including metal-chelation capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and phosphomolybdenum reducing power (PRAP). The fatty oils of the coffee brands and the fruits and the fruit essential oil were examined by GC-MS. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were calculated spectrophotometrically. The extracts had moderate inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (9.78-45.74% at 200 mu g mL(-1)) and potent scavenging activity against DPPH. They exerted strong activity in FRAP and metal-chelation tests and modest activity in PRAP test. Oleic acid was identified as the major fatty acid in the fatty oils, while alpha-pinene (26.31%) was dominant in the essential oil. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Estimation of in vitro neuroprotective properties and quantification of rutin and fatty acids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivated in Turkey
    (2012-05-01T00:00:00Z) Gulpinar, Ali Rifat; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Kan, Asuman; SENOL, Fatma Sezer; Celik, Sadiye Ayse; Kartal, MURAT; KARTAL, MURAT
    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) is a popular food crop plant from Polygonaceae. In this study, we investigated the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of the seed, stem, and aerial parts of the plant for their neuroprotective effect through acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using the scavenging activity tests against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals and the metal-related methods; metal-chelating capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were calculated spectrophotometrically. Chemical composition of the seed oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and rutin was quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extracts were more active against butyrylcholinesterase and highly able to scavenge DPPH. The ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts and the ethanol extract of the stems displayed a remarkable effect in the FRAP assay. None of the extracts had capacity to chelate the iron. According to LC-MS analysis, the richest plant part in terms of rutin was found to be the aerial parts. GC-MS analysis revealed that the seed oil was dominated by oleic (33.15%), linoleic (31.93%), and palmitic (13.15%) acids. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Variations in fatty acid compositions of the seed oil of Eruca sativa Mill. caused by different sowing periods and nitrogen forms
    (2010-10-01T00:00:00Z) Ugur, Atnan; Suntar, Ipek; Aslan, Sinem; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Kartal, MURAT; Sekeroglu, Nazim; EŞİYOK, DURSUN; Sener, Bilge; KARTAL, MURAT
    Background: Eruca is a native plant genus of the South Europe and central Asia where it has been cultivated since centuries. As the genus name implies, the oil is high in erucic acid. Materials and Methods: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of sowing periods (autumn and spring) and three forms of the nitrogen-containing fertilizers (manure, calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)(2), 15.5% N], and ammonium sulphate [(NH4)(2)SO4, 21% N]) on fatty acid compositions of the oils obtained from Eruca sativa Mill. seeds cultivated. All oils were obtained by maceration of the seeds with n-hexane at room temperature and converted to their methyl ester derivatives by trans-methylesterification reaction using boron-trifluorur (BF3). The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the oils were detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: All the samples analyzed were found to contain quite high amounts of erucic acid ranging between 46.64-54.79%, followed by oleic (17.86-19.95%), palmitic (7.25-10.97%), linoleic (4.23-9.72%), and linolenic (1.98-3.01%) acids. Conclusion: Our data pointed out that there is a statistically important alteration caused by these applications on the contents of only C12:0 and C14:0 found as the minor fatty acids, whereas no other fatty acids in the samples seemed to be affected by those criteria.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Investigation on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of extracts and essential oils of Turkish Pinus species and pycnogenol
    (2012-07-01T00:00:00Z) Ustun, Osman; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Kartal, MURAT; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; KARTAL, MURAT
    In the current work, the acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts and essential oils of the twigs and needles of five Turkish Pinus species; P. brutia, P. halepensis, P. nigra, P. pinea, and P. sylvestris along with pycnogenol (the bark extract of P. pinaster) were examined for their inhibitory effects against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 200 mu g mL(-1). Their antioxidant activity was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical scavenging, metal-chelation, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. GC-MS technique was applied for compositional profile of the essential oils of the tested species. Accordingly, the best AChE and BChE inhibition was caused by the twig essential oil (83.91 +/- 3.95%) and the needle ethanol extract (82.47 +/- 5.57%) of P. halepensis, respectively. Pycnogenol also caused a remarkable inhibition against AChE (63.33 +/- 0.22%) and BChE (83.67 +/- 0.22%). The extracts and essential oils usually showed a strong activity in the antioxidant assays. Pycnogenol exhibited a potent antioxidant effect and had the richest total phenol content. In the essential oils, alpha- and beta-pinene were identified the major components. These results reveal that the Pious species and pycnogenol are the potential sources of active metabolites with cholinesterase and antioxidant properties. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Exploration of cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory, antiprotozoal and antioxidant effects of Buxus sempervirens L. (boxwood)
    (2012-11-01T00:00:00Z) Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Kartal, MURAT; Sener, Bilge; KARTAL, MURAT
    The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Buxus sempervirens growing naturally in Turkey were investigated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as well as tyrosinase (TYRO) enzymes for their inhibitory activity using ELISA microplate reader. Antiprotozoal activity of the extracts was tested against the parasites; Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (human African trypanosomiasis) at 0.81 and 4.85 mu g/mL concentrations. As antioxidant activity contributes to antimalarial activity, the extracts were also tested for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, iron-chelating capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenol and flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The alkaloid fraction of the chloroform extract afforded two major alkaloids named (+)-buxabenzamidienine (1) and (+)-buxamidine (2). Our results showed that, except for the petroleum ether extract, the extracts displayed high antimalarial and anti-BChE effects as well as quite high iron-chelation capacity. Therefore, we suggest that the active extracts in the antimalarial tests might be showing their effects through the mechanism of BChE inhibition and additionally iron-chelation ability. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    LC-MS quantification of parthenolide and cholinesterase inhibitory potential of selected Tanacetum L. (Emend. Briq.) taxa
    (2015-03-01T00:00:00Z) Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Tosun, Fatma; Gulpinar, Ali Rifat; Kartal, MURAT; Duran, Ahmet; Mihoglugil, Feyyaz; Akalgan, Demet; KARTAL, MURAT
    The acetonitrile extracts of various Tanacetum L. (Emend. Briq.) taxa from Turkey as well as parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone found in Tanacetum species as active substance were investigated for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the key enzymes in pathogenesis of Alzheimer-s disease, at 100 mu g mL(-1) using ELISA microplate assay. Most of the extracts displayed a remarkable AChE inhibition where the leaf of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium had the highest inhibition (96.68 +/- 0.35%). The extracts had moderate inhibition toward BChE, among which the stem of Tanacetum argyrophyllum var. argyrophyllum-1 exerted the best inhibition (63.81 +/- 3.64%). However, parthenolide exhibited low inhibition against both of the enzymes. Total flavonoid content of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, was quantified in these taxa by LC-MS and the leaf of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum possessed the richest parthenolide amount (2.261 +/- 0.002%), while most of the species screened were found to contain the required percentage (0.2% minimum) by European Pharmacopeia. (C) 2014 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Composition of Volatiles from Three Iris Species of Turkey
    (2011-07-01T00:00:00Z) Baser, Kemal H. C.; Demirci, Betul; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Kartal, MURAT; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Sener, Bilge; KARTAL, MURAT
    The genus Iris is known to contain gorgeous flowers with a violet-like scent. Iris is represented in the Turkish flora by 37 species. Nonetheless, no study has been so far performed on the volatile constituents of the Turkish Iris species. In this study, our objective was to determine compositions of volatiles of the individual plant parts, including flowers, rhizomes, and sterns of three Turkish Iris species, namely: I. pseudacorus L. collected from two different localities (Beysehir and Trabzon), I. kerneriana Asch. & Sint. ex Baker, as well as I. sofarana Foster (cultivated) by microdistillation. The volatile compounds of these species were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems, simultaneously. The main components were characterized as follows: I. pseudacorus flowers: hexadecanoic acid (30.3%), heptacosane (13.6%), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (11%); I. pseudacorus rhizomes: nonacosane (37.3%), triacontane (9.0%), octacosane (7.9%), pentacosane (7.7%); I. kerneriana flowers: a-kessyl acetate (14.7%), longipinene (10.8%), decanoic acid (10.6%), heptacosane (10.2%), hexadecanoic acid (9.5%), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (7.1%); I. kerneriana rhizomes: tetradecanoic acid (31.5%), heptacosane (10.0%), alpha-kessyl acetate (9.5%), nonacosane (8.8%), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (7.7%); I. kerneriana sterns: nonacosane (18.3%), heptacosane (16.7%), pentacosane (10.3%), tricosane (6.0%); I. pseudoacarus rhizomes: nonacosane (26.2%), alpha-Kessyl acetate (14.7%), triacontane (7.3%), octacosane (7.4%); I. pseudacorus sterns: octyl acetate (32.0%), nonacosane (14.4%), octyl butyrate (9.5%); I. sofarana rhizomes: decanoic acid (11.7%), alpha-pinene (8.4%), ethyl oleate (7.6%), irone (5.7%).
  • PublicationMetadata only
    Tyrosinase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Potential and Flavonoid Characterization of Viola odorata L. (Sweet Violet)
    (2015-09-01T00:00:00Z) Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Tatli, I. Irem; Kartal, MURAT; Alp, Şevket; KARTAL, MURAT
    Inhibitory potential of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Viola odorata L. (VO) was investigated against tyrosinase (TYR) and cholinesterases by microplate assays. The antioxidant activity was tested using six in vitro assays. Only the ethanol extract inhibited TYR (80.23 +/- 0.87% at 100 mu gmL(-1)), whereas none of them were able to inhibit cholinesterases. The extracts were more able to scavenge NO radical (31.98 +/- 0.53-56.68 +/- 1.10%) than other radicals tested, and displayed low to moderate activity in the rest of the assays. HPLC analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of VO contained a substantial amount of vitexin (18.81 +/- 0.047mgg(-1) extract), while the ethanol extract also possessed rutin (1.31 +/- 0.013mgg(-1) extract) and vitexin (4.65 +/- 0.103mgg(-1) extract). Furthermore, three flavonoids (rutin, isovitexin, and kaempferol-6-glucoside) were isolated from the ethanol extract. This is the first report on TYR inhibitory activity of VO as well as presence of vitexin and isovitexin in this species. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.