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  • PublicationMetadata only
    Standard Water Generating Vials for Lipophilic Compounds
    (2023-01-17) Dincel D.; Rosales-Solano H.; Zeinali S.; Pawliszyn J.; DİNCEL, DEMET
    American Chemical Society.The study of non-polar compounds in aqueous environments has always been challenging due to their poor solubility in aqueous media. The low affinity of non-polar compounds toward polar solutions facilitates their attachment to glassware, which results in unstable sample concentrations. To address this challenge, and to enable the preparation of a stable mixture of hydrophobic compounds in an aquatic environment, we introduce an in-vial standard water generating system consisting of a vial containing appropriate aqueous solution and a polydimethylsiloxane thin film spiked with target compounds. In this system, a solution with a stable analyte concentration is attained once equilibrium between the thin-film and aqueous solution has been achieved. The developed standard water system was studied using endocannabinoids and phospholipids as model hydrophobic compounds of biological importance, with results indicating that the concentration of hydrophobic compounds in water can remain stable over multiple days. The results also showed that analytes released from the thin film can compensate for analyte loss due to extractions with solid-phase microextraction fibers, thereby re-establishing equilibrium. Thus, the vial is suitable for the repeatable generation of non-polar standards for routine analysis and quality control. The results of this work show that the developed system is stable and reproducible and therefore appropriate for studies requiring the measurement of free concentrations and accurate quantification.
  • PublicationMetadata only
    A Review of Medicinal Properties of Ginkgo biloba L.
    (2023-05-01) Dincel D.; Aydemir G. G.; Altınbaşak O.; Büyükkılıç Altınbaşak B.; Yüksel Mayda P.; DİNCEL, DEMET
    The history of the Ginkgo biloba L. species’ history dates back to very ancient times. It can live for approximately a thousand years and it is quite resistant to adverse conditions. Its leaves contain important components that make them useful for medicinal purposes. In addition, its seeds have also been used as a therapeutic agent in traditional Chinese medicine. G. biloba extracts are usually used in standardized dosage forms in medicinal preparations. Today, the preffered form is a standardized extract of G. biloba called Tebonin Egb761. Studies have shown that G. biloba leaf extract is effective in treating symptomatic relief of mild to moderate cerebral insufficiency in humans. It provides effective treatment in both Alzheimer's and vascular dementia patients. The herbal extract can also have positive effects on the quality of life in healthy individuals. G. biloba is effective against inner ear disorders and provides protection against endothelial damage. Besides, scientific studies have demonstrated that it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antidiabetic, anticancer, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and many other effects. G. biloba is considered an important nutraceutical due to its scientifically proven effects. There is a growing interest in the scientific community regarding this plant. In this study, a review was made by compiling the data obtained from the literature on the "botanical characteristics", "history", "bioactive components", and "biological activities" of the G. biloba species.