TR Dizin İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu
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- PublicationOpen AccessInvestigation of delayed type hypersensitivity response against crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleoprotein(Bezmialem Vakıf University, 2016) Çetin, Nesibe Selma; Doymaz, Mehmet ZiyaCrimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by CCHFV is reported in a wide geographic range with a fatality rate ranging from 5 to 50 %. CCHFV is a member of the family Bunyaviridae and classified in Nairovirus genus. CCHFV genome is composed of tripartite single-stranded negative RNA segments, and RNA dependent viral RNA polymerase is produced by L segment. S segment encodes nucleoprotein (NP) and M segment expresses Gn and Gc. To initiate the viral replication and transcription in the host cell, the segments are needed to be encapsidated by NP. The S segment of CCHFV encodes 53 kDa NP made up of globular domain with a prominent arm. CCHFV infection is generally reported as a mild, nonspecific febrile illness but in some cases, severe hemorrhagic disease is also developed. Persisting hemorrhage, multi-organ failure and shock result in fatality on day 5-14 of illness. In combatting against viral infections, CMI plays a pivotal role. Therefore it is essential to clarify the role of cellular immunity in CCHFV infection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of delayet type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against CCHFV in an animal model. For this purpose, CCHFV NP (1449 bp), N-terminal part of NP, NPNT (387 bp) and C-terminal part of NP, NPCT (513 bp) were recombinantly produced in procaryotic expression systems and investigated their effect on DTH. Following immunization steps, antigens were injected in three different dosage (50 μg/μl, 100 μg/μl, 200 μg/μl) and footpad swelling was measured by an electronic caliper. For each protein, DTH response has peaked at 24 hr and decreased by 72 hr. Footpad swelling was statistically significant on right hind pad injected with antigen for each groups, compared to negative control (p<0,05). 100 μg/μl was found to be optimum dose for DTH response. The results of this study demonstrate that, CCHFV NP contains CD4+ T cell epitopes and N-terminal part of CCHFV NP developed stronger antigenicity than C-terminal part. Because, the exact role played by each protein in developing a cellular immunity against the whole virus have not been studied in detail, any information on the individual proteins and on the cellular immune response will be a wellcomed addition to the data on CCHFV. These information would be used in developing strategies in designing vaccines as well as on antiviral approaches.
- PublicationOpen AccessYoğun bakım hemşirelerinin parenteral beslenme ve uygulamaları ile ilgili bilgi düzeyleri / The levels of knowledge of the intensive care nurses in terms of parenteral nutrition and practices(Bezmialem Vakıf University, 2018) Ertav, Fatma Gökçe; İlhan, NesrinThis research was conducted to determine the levels of knowledge of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' in terms of parenteral nutrition (PN) and their practices. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 234 ICU nurses working in 7 state hospitals in Istanbul between 15.08.2017 - 08.10.2017. The data were collected using the "Knowledge Level Questionnaire for PN and Practices of ICU Nurses". In the evaluation of the data, descriptive statistical tests, Kolmogorov Smirnov test, Anova, Tukey HSD tests and Student's t test were used. The mean age of the ICU nurses was 27,68 ± 4,57 and %81.6 were female. %88.9 of the ICU nurses received information about PN and %62,4 of them learned this knowledge during professional training, %37,2 of them were informed from healthcare team who working with, 32,9% were informed on in-service training, %25,6 of them informed from congresses, seminars and courses that they participated in. It was found that ICU nurses answered the questions about PN and their practices correctly between %19,7 and %98,7. PN questionnaires' scores of ICU nurses are between 12-65, and the average score of the knowledge point is 49,95 ± 8,93. Mean average score of PB definition subscale of ICU nurses was 0,98 ± 0,11, mean of PN indications subscale average score was 5,28 ± 1,71, mean of PN contraindications subscale average score was 1,56 ± 0,92, mean of PN advantages subscale average score was 3,10 ± 1,03, mean of PN complications subscale average score was 4,76 ± 1,54, mean of PN clinical nursing practice subscale average score was 19,45 ± 4,03, mean of PN nursing interventions subscale average score was 12,88 ± 2,23 and mean of PN troubleshooting subscale average score was found to be 1,89 ± 0,42. The PN advantages information point averages of the older nurses who were older than 25 years and married were found to be higher also female nurses information point averages about PN indications were found to be higher (p<0,05; p<0,05; p<0,01). PN indications and advantages information point averages of ICU nurses with undergraduate and graduate degrees were higher also ICU nurses who worked 6 years or more's PN advantages information point averages were higher (p<0,05; p<0,05). The mean scores of PN knowledge of pediatric and general ICU nurses were higher than the other ICU nurses (p<0,05). The average total score of PN knowledge of ICU nurses who had previously received PN education and ICU nurses who thought that they had enough knowledge about PN was higher (p<0,001; p<0,01). ICU nurses who received PN training with in-service training, during the congress, seminar, course and from the health team that they were working with both had higher PN total point averages (p<0,05; p<0,05; p<0,001). As a result of the research, the knowledge levels of the ICU nurses about PN was determined medium and above. ICU nurses who previously received in-service training, congress, seminar, course, and from healthcare team training about PN were found to have a higher knowledge level of PN.
- PublicationOpen AccessZeytin yaprağı ekstraktının insan hepatoselüler karsinoma hücrelerinde tirozin kinaz, insülin reseptör-1, glut4 ve glut2 protein ekspresyon seviyeleri üzerine etkilerinin araştırılması(Bezmialem Vakıf University, 2018) Kasap, Burçin; Koçyiğit, AbdurrahimOlive tree is one of the most durable tree on earth. The leaf of olive tree have been used by folks in the treatment of various diseases. The reason why olive leaf is commonly used as a supplement in the recovery process of Type II Diabetes and various cancers is because it involves hundreds of antioxidant chemicals. Hyperglycemia in individuals with Diabetes is considered to be beneficial for cancer biology thanks to the molecules in carcinogenes, antiapoptothic mechanisms, cell migration and invasion. Inflammatuar cytokines, which formed due to insulin resistance, leads to hepatosteatosis which may cause hepatocelular carcinom after. Type II Diabetes is a widespread chronic disease that leads morbidity and mortality to rise when the population is getting untreated, increasing rapidly due to the age of the population and the unhealthy diet. Today, both chemical and herbal products are widely used for treatment. 'Oleuropeinin', an important ingredient of olive leaf, prevents complications such as heart failure, vascular occlusion, which are common in diabetic individuals; also phenolic compounds existing in the olive leaf block the formation of intravenous plaque and result in a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of individuals. However, there is insufficient information on the mechanisms of action. The aim of this project is to investigate the effects of olive leaf extract on the expression of insulin receptor protein (Irs-1), tyrosine kinase, GLUT-4 and GLUT-2 receptor proteins on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells on in vitro cell culture medium. For this purpose, olive leaf was extracted with 70% methanol / 30% water mixture and lyophilized in lyophilizer and then dissolved with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined by photometric method. Oleuropein concentrations were analyzed by HPLC (viability test). After the analysis results, different concentrations of the olive leaf extract diluted and they were treated in HepG2 cell culture medium and incubated for 24 hours. The cytotoxicity test was then analyzed by luminometric ATP level assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by fluorometric assay. Within the obtained cell lysates; IRS-1, tyrosine kinase, GLUT-4 and GLUT-2 protein expression levels were analyzed by Western Blot technique. Statistical analysis also assessed the experimental and control cell groups. It was determined that the olive leaf extract has a proliferative effect at low concentrations (up to 10 mg / ml) and it has an increase in cytotoxicity proportionally with dose (after 10mg/ml). Also, ROS levels were decreased until 10mg/ml and then proportionally increases proportionally (after 10 mg/ml) with dose. There was a strong negative correlation between ROS and cell viability. Protein expression analysis revealed that olive leaf extract promoted the expression of glucose receptors and transport proteins, with a maximum increase of 10 μg / ml. As a result, it has been concluded that the conventionally used olive leaf extract can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. It also increases the expression of receptors and transport proteins that provide glucose entry into the cell.